Stains are usually applied by brush, spraying or rolling. In the industry are used different very specific technologies, depending on the type of a product and applied stain.
1. Applying the stains by brush
This method is specifically used for staining surfaces of complicated shape. Spray application would in such cases resulted in the formation of vortices in the corners, which would lead to unequal distribution, with lighter stripes on the top lines. If the stain is applied by brush, the surface will be equally colored. Stain has a few dry residues and wood absorbs it completely. Therefore, the marks left by the brush hairs do not see when using the brush applicator, which is not the case when the brush is used to apply a varnish. Stain should be applied to the surface in a thick layer, then it should be rubbed off and flatten with long brush strokes in the direction of the fibers. You need to use a brush with very soft hair. Advantages and disadvantages of using this method are typical for applying liquid materials with the brush.
2. Applying the stains by spraying
For applying stains by spraying is commonly used a conventional paint gun or pump that are operating at low pressure with a pistol with a mixing air. This technique is mainly used for staining flat surfaces. Compared with the application by the brush, with spraying is achieved a higher productivity, although the spraying of product has a lot of destruction. You must avoid the occurrence of turbulence, especially if the product has corners. Therefore, you need to operate with a relatively low pressure of about 2-2.5 bar, and the nozzles must be less than those which are typically used for the application of varnish, between 1.3 and 1.5mm. Uniform coloration is obtained even in areas of greater absorption when the stain is applied by spraying, i.e. the same amount of stain is applied over the entire surface. On the other hand, the colors will look darker if the stain is applied by brush in areas where wood absorbs a greater quantity. The amount that needs to be applied depends on the type of the wood and products that being processed. When toning assembled products (eg. chairs), stain is applied by dipping or spraying with an electrostatic spray guns. This technology in combination with certain stain gives a very uniform coloring effect.
3. Applying the stains by rolling, sponge or cloth
When industrial production has to toning the flat surfaces, the product is applied with special machines that distributed it on the surface by large rollers. The stain used for such machines has been prepared in a specific way. Application by sponge or cloth is used when we want to achieve uniformity of color and/or when we want to emphasize the pores, to be more visible. Since the stain is applied to the surface in the thick layer with brush or spray, the excess is removed with a sponge or lint-free cloth. If the color is the same, with this technique we will achieve lighter shades than if we use a brush or spray, and the final effect will be more balanced. Not only the cloths or sponges remove any excess from the pores of the porous wood, but they also have the characteristics of fillers, which made itself more visible pores. The stain that will be treated by the cloth or sponge, takes a long time to dry so a master could do his job while it is still in a liquid state on the surface.
4. Application of the stains on the flat surfaces must always start from the edges
If you work on horizontal surfaces, always work from the bottom up. When using a spray gun, it is important to apply two coasts of the stain o be equally blurred. If the horizontal surfaces have stripes or vertical design, first apply the stain on this surface, and then evenly on the entire surface. The wood in the marginal zone absorbs more stains than surfaces with parallel to the longitudinal axis. This phenomenon is causing greater staining of these points, which is particularly evident if the stain is applied with a brush or a sponge. If you use a brush, on these surfaces apply the stain which is more diluted.
Wood and its history
Wood as a construction material was applied from the earliest time. Next to the stone, it was for many years the main material for the construction. In recent decades, the wood gets and it is frequently used in the construction of modern – permanent facilities, especially architectural buildings, facilities with all the elements of contemporary architecture. Wood has a small volume weight, it is 13 times lighter than steel, and 4 times lighter than concrete, and that is not insignificant. It has relatively high strength parallel to the grain, it is easy to process and it is independent of weather conditions. It has great design options to the cross section, and silhouettes of the structural element. Small sensitivity of the material to temperature changes, the possibilities of installation and dislocation of the structure, deploy wood as a material for construction in equal relations with other materials used in construction.
Wood is the oldest building material for the simple reason that using it it is possible to make a simple building with very little tools, or even without tools. Wood has always been highly prized material. It offers great possibilities for the application, but at the same time, demands skill recognition feature, adequate preparation, and professional treatment and protection. Therefore, the people, when they began to deal with the construction, used wood to make a simple hut or tent structures. The development of human society and improvement of tools, the wood began to be used for more complex structures, and today it is irreplaceable building material.
Building with wood
Wood can be used partially or completely processed. Partially processed is only suitable for temporary structures, because various pests can populate the wooden parts of the building if it is not stripped of bark. Processed wood in the form of beams, planks, or logs is used for creation of permanent structures. In the construction industry, wood can be used for parts of the building: for foundation (in houses on stilts or wooden pies), for the walls (in log cabins), for columns, beams, etc. For the roof, wood is used in a form of shingles. The share of wood in the construction of residential and commercial buildings, in the construction of industrial facilities and large warehouses and halls is growing by the day. In market competition with brick, concrete, steel or light metal, the wood is offered as a cost-effective alternative. In building construction, the wood is divided into two classes: hard wood and soft wood. The first class includes hardwood: oak, beech, and other class mostly includes conifers: pine, spruce, larch, and poplar. Soft wood has less capacity, but it is easier to handle and transport than hard wood, and therefore, it is more frequently used. In addition to exceptional functionality, aesthetic side of the wood is extremely usable and acceptable.
A variety of wood products, which are produced for construction equipment and machinery includes:
- Formwork for concrete
- Winter garden
- Wall and ceiling elements
- Balconies, etc.
In addition to functionality and aesthetics, important arguments for the wood as a building material, is its sustainability and biological value:
- Air conditioning in the room
- Fumes from the material
Advantage of the wood as a building material
Comfort – wood is a very warm material. Massive wood has a high heat capacity. This feature keeps his balance between external temperature changes during the day and keeps the interior temperature comfortable for life. In the summer the temperature is pleasantly cool and in the winter keeps the heat. The walls of the wooden houses are several times superior with its insulating properties as compared to the brick of the same thickness. Therefore, that the wood is more energy efficient, natural insulation of logs is also a good soundproof so as to provide better and more comfortable sleep.
Continuance – wood is durable material. The oldest wooden houses in the world are more than 800 years old. The wood is very strong and solid structure compared to its weight. Most buildings of logs remained intact after the quake.
Outer material – wood is a beautiful material. Its natural forms and colors suited eyes. Many famous artists, composers and writers have created their works by living in the houses made of wood. Natural environment encourages creativity.
Safety – solid wood is resistant material and burns more slowly than concrete columns or steel beams. This is due to 15% of water which constitutes the wood and it evaporates before the wood has completely burned. Moreover, burning wood produces semi-carbon layer which protects the core.
Ecology –the wood is renewable resource and it promotes global environmental preservation. In the growth process, the wood absorbs carbon dioxide and global warming slows down by 50%. The materials that make up the original wooden houses can be recycled after several decades. Construction of wooden houses is an act of environmental protection. The wood is much lighter than other building materials, and therefore its processing is much easier.
Timbering – it is obtained by mechanical processing of wood – cutting, splitting, trimming and peeling. It can be divided according to:
- Length: short (up to 4m) and long (over 4m)
- The manner and procedure of processing: clothing (forms), sawn, shakes (shingles), hewn, and a separate group consists of profiled elements of wood (decking, flooring boards, paneling, etc.)
Sawn – the division of the thickness and compared sides of cross section:
- Sheets – thin boards – 9-13mm
- Boards – 14-40mm
- Planks – over 40mm
- Squares: lattice – max 33/48mm, billets – higher dimension max 10cm and beams – the smaller dimension of element, greater than 10cm.
Products with an unchanged structure of wood – this includes:
- Laminated wood
Products with a changed structure of wood – for this type of wood can be used and different waste wood material. Principle: chopped wood material + binder/glue. These are:
- Lightweight concrete based on organic aggregates (blindite, heraklit)
- Fibreboard – Masonite
- MDF boards
Building industry – this construction includes elements of wood with small cross sections obtained by cutting, planing and milling of timber. These are:
- Parquet (ordinary parquet and mosaic parquet).